The cerebellum has been implicated in higher-order behavior. Blood flow studies (SPECT) have shown that cerebral diaschisis can appear after cerebellar lesions and this phenomenon could serve as a basis for a potential neuropsychological derangement after cerebellar insults. Our objectives in this study were to delineate the neuropsychological profile after cerebellar stroke, to evaluate cerebral diaschisis as measured by SPECT and to correlate the findings. We prospectively studied 26 patients with cerebellar stroke and 16 subjects matched for age, sex and educational level as a control group. A neuropsychological battery test, MRI and cerebral SPECT were performed in both groups. We found that cerebellar stroke results in motor control impairment and mild naming deficit, whereas no dysfunction in declarative memory, language, visuospatial or executive abilities is evident. The anatomical distribution of the lesion does not seem relevant in terms of neuropsychological impairment or diaschisis. Both ipsilateral and contralateral diaschisis as a result of a cerebellar stroke are found, but this phenomenon does not seem to result in overt neuropsychological derangement.