Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two of the most often reported bacterial infections in the United States. The rectum and oropharynx are important anatomic sites of infection and can contribute to ongoing transmission. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the mainstays for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections owing to their high sensitivity and specificity. Several NAATs have been evaluated for testing in rectal and pharyngeal infections. A few assays recently received clearance by the Food and Drug Administration, including one point-of-care test. Those assays can be used for testing in symptomatic individuals, as well as for asymptomatic screening in certain patient populations. Routine screening for C. trachomatis in pharyngeal specimens is not recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, though it is often performed due to the use of multiplex assays. While expanding the types of settings for screening and using self-collected rectal and pharyngeal specimens can help to increase access and uptake of testing, additional research is needed to determine the potential benefits and costs associated with increased screening for rectal and pharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections on a population level.