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The Diagnosis and Management of Toxic Alcohol Poisoning in the Emergency Department: A Review Article

Authors
  • Gallagher, Nicholas1
  • Edwards, Frank J.1
  • 1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Arnot Ogden Medical Center, Elmira, New York, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Advanced Journal of Emergency Medicine
Publisher
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Publication Date
May 22, 2019
Volume
3
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.22114/ajem.v0i0.153
PMID: 31410405
PMCID: PMC6683589
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Context: This review discusses the range of clinical presentations seen with poisonings by the major toxic alcohols--methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol. It outlines a straightforward diagnostic strategy and discusses in detail the current treatment recommendations. Evidence acquisition: The authors conducted a literature search of primary and secondary sources related to the topic. For treatment recommendations, search restrictions included articles published between 2008 and 2019. For background information, search restrictions included articles written from 1990 – present. Results: This review discusses in detail how the diagnosis can be made via clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory values as well as the most recent treatment recommendations. This paper will also discuss the limitations of the emergency department workup and how the absence of particular laboratory findings does not necessarily rule out the diagnosis. Conclusion: Poisoning with methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to emergency physicians. Toxic alcohol poisonings lead to an elevated osmolar gap and, with the exception of Isopropanol, a metabolic acidosis. In order for the timely initiation of life-saving treatment, emergency physicians need a solid understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, laboratory workup, and treatment.

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