Head and neck paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors that express somatostatin type 2 receptors and can consequently be visualized through nuclear imaging techniques, using radionuclide-labelled somatostatin analogs, specifically 111In-pentetreotide. 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy is a safe and non-invasive technique that can be used to explore the entire body; thus, multifocal paragangliomas as well as malignant paragangliomas with local and distant metastasis can be detected. Because this technique is functional, it is highly useful to confirm recurrence or residual tumors, as well as to follow-up patients undergoing surgery. Paragangliomas can be familial and consequently this technique can be used for screening of familial cases. Recently, other nuclear imaging techniques, based on positron emission tomography (PET) technology, have been developed for the diagnosis of these tumors. Appropriately radiolabeled somatostatin analogs could potentially be used for the treatment of paragangliomas.