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Diabetes prevalence and outcomes in hospitalized cardiorenal-syndrome patients with and without hyponatremia

  • Pliquett, Rainer U.1, 2
  • Schlump, Katrin1
  • Wienke, Andreas3
  • Bartling, Babett4
  • Noutsias, Michel5
  • Tamm, Alexander5, 6
  • Girndt, Matthias1
  • 1 Department of Internal Medicine II, Martin - Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany , Halle (Saale) (Germany)
  • 2 Carl-Thiem Hospital, Cottbus, Thiemstrasse 111, Cottbus, 03048, Germany , Cottbus (Germany)
  • 3 Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometry and Informatics, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany , Halle (Saale) (Germany)
  • 4 University Clinic and Outpatient Clinic for Cardiac Surgery, Martin - Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany , Halle (Saale) (Germany)
  • 5 University Clinic and Outpatient Clinic for Internal Medicine III, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany , Halle (Saale) (Germany)
  • 6 University Mainz, Mainz, Germany , Mainz (Germany)
Published Article
BMC Nephrology
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Sep 10, 2020
DOI: 10.1186/s12882-020-02032-z
Springer Nature


BackgroundHyponatremia is known to be associated with a worse patient outcome in heart failure. In cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), the prognostic role of concomitant hyponatremia is unclear. We sought to evaluate potential risk factors for hyponatremia in patients with CRS presenting with or without hyponatremia on hospital admission.MethodsIn a retrospective study, we investigated 262 CRS patients without sepsis admitted to the University Hospital Halle over a course of 4 years. CRS diagnosis was derived from an electronic search of concomitant diagnoses of acute or chronic (NYHA 3–4) heart failure and acute kidney injury (AKIN 1–3) or chronic kidney disease (KDIGO G3-G5nonD). A verification of CRS diagnosis was done based on patient records. Depending on the presence (Na < 135 mmol/L) or absence (Na ≥ 135 mmol/L) of hyponatremia on admission, the CRS patients were analyzed for comorbidities such as diabetes, presence of hypovolemia on admission, need for renal replacement therapy and prognostic factors such as in-hospital and one-year mortality.ResultsTwo hundred sixty-two CRS patients were included in this study, thereof, 90 CRS patients (34.4%) with hyponatremia (Na < 135 mmol/L). The diabetes prevalence among CRS patients was high (> 65%) and not related to the serum sodium concentration on admission. In comparison to non-hyponatremic CRS patients, the hyponatremic patients had a lower serum osmolality, hypovolemia was more prevalent (41.1% versus 16.3%, p < 0.001). As possible causes of hypovolemia, diarrhea, a higher number of diuretic drug classes and higher diuretic dosages were found. Hyponatremic and non-hyponatremic CRS patients had a comparable need for renal-replacement therapy (36.7% versus 31.4%) during the hospital stay. However, after discharge, relatively more hyponatremic CRS patients on renal replacement therapy switched to a non-dialysis therapy regimen (50.0% versus 22.2%). Hyponatremic CRS patients showed a trend for a higher in-hospital mortality (15.6% versus 7.6%, p = 0.054), but no difference in the one-year mortality (43.3% versus 40.1%, p = 0.692).ConclusionsAll CRS patients showed a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and a high one-year mortality. In comparison to non-hyponatremic CRS patients, hyponatremic ones were more likely to have hypovolemia, and had a higher likelihood for temporary renal replacement therapy.

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