Diabetes Mellitus represents an important public health problem in the most developed industrialized countries. Clinical presentations of diabetes are strongly related to the cardiovascular system, namely, coronary disease and angiopathic renal failure. Diabetes modifies the clinical course of arteriosclerosis by carrying the angiopathic process to a microvascular level, where typical microangiopathic lesions can be observed. The risk of developing atherosclerotic disease is 2-3 fold higher in diabetics than in nondiabetics and arterial hypertension reaches a prevalence of 40 to 80%. Authors analyse Arterial Hypertension in the context of Diabetes putting focus on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Where considering the coronary disease (CD), its high prevalence among the diabetics is also emphasized, which is expressed by an increase of morbidity and mortality when compared to normal subjects. In diabetics not only the incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction is higher, but also the long term prognosis is more complicated, a reality that the authors try to explain by anatomic and metabolic factors. The association of Diabetes plus hyperlipidemia represents undoubtedly one of the major factors that justify the worsening and progression of CD. Briefly, some interesting points that allow the understanding of this topic are described, pointing the pathogenic differences of types I and II and the clinical implications of their knowledge. Finally, the approach of Diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor is discussed in a prophylactic perspective.