Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a combination of many metabolic diseases. Insulin deficiency in our body is the main cause of diabetes. Insulin is one of the most well studied proteins, yet the genesis of its discovery was not getting much attention so far. Nevertheless, the history of the discovery of insulin is an exemplary of solving observational and scientific riddles, drudgery, patience and even professional turmoil. It is an inspiration for all medical personnel and scientists who are practising in the field of molecular medicine. Additionally, the genetic and epigenetic regulation of different types of diabetes needs to be addressed because of the widespread nature of the disease. Diabetes not only involves genetic predisposition but environmental factors, lifestyle etc. can be the major contributor for its inception. Nonetheless, viral infections at an early age are also found to trigger the onset of type I diabetes. In this review article, the history of the discovery of insulin is detailed along with the justification for the genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of diabetes and explained how viral infections can also trigger the onset of diabetes.