Abstract To resolve the taxonomic relationship between two types of parasitic nematode larvae (Type I and II) and two species of parasitic nematode adults ( Anisakis simplex and A. physeteris) of the aquatic ascarid genus Anisakis, collected in Japanese coastal water, a comparison was made of their hemoglobins' physicochemical properties. The larval hemoglobins were more similar to each other in electrophoretic pattern than to either adult, indeed there were few similarities whatsoever in these patterns of larval and adult hemoglobins. However, isoelectric points were 6.2 for the Type I larva and for A. simplex and 5.4 for the Type II larva and for A. physeteris. All samples showed identical patterns in spectrophotometric scanning. The circular dichroic spectra of the samples were also virtually identical, although slight differences were noted in the oxygenated hemoglobins; the Type II larva and A. physeteris exhibited a small positive peak at 575 nm but the Type I larva and A. simplex exhibited a much smaller peak (negative position). The sedimentation coefficients of the samples possessed essentially identical values (11.2–12.4). The molecular weights of the samples were estimated, roughly, to be in the range 33 to 43 × 10 4 by thin-layer chromatography on Sephadex G-200. The evidence suggests that a relationship may exist between the Type I larva and A. simplex, and between the Type II larva and A. physeteris.