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Génétique des pathologies associées à un dysfonctionnement du complexe de mobilisation calcique du muscle squelettique

Revue Neurologique
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/s0035-3787(04)71008-5
  • Syndrome D’Hyperthermie Maligne
  • Calcium
  • Myopathie
  • Malignant Hyperthermia Syndrome
  • Myopathy
  • Biology
  • Design
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Philosophy


Summary Myoplasmic calcium homeostasis is an essential feature of skeletal muscle contraction. The calcium mobilisation complex (CMC) located at the level of the triadic junction plays a major role for the regulation of calcium fluxes between extra-cellular, cytoplasmic and intra-cellular compartments. The ryanodine receptor type I (RYR1), which is located at the level of the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum is a key component of the CMC. RYR1 allow the release into the myoplasm of the intralumenal stores of calcium. RYR1 interacts with other proteins: DiHydroPyridine Receptor, triadin, calsequestrin, FKBP12, calmodulin… Malignant hyperthermia (MHS) and congenital core myopathies have been associated with a dysfunction of the CMC. MHS is an autosomic dominant pharmacogenetic disease. The MH crisis is induced by exposure of the predisposed patients to halogenated volatile anaesthetics. MHS is characterised by a genetic heterogeneity and two genes, RYR1 and CACNA1S, have been associated so far with the disease. Mutations in the RYR1 gene have been recently associated with heat stroke, a related syndrome. Central Core Disease (CCD) and Multi minicore Disease (MmD) are congenital myopathies presenting with clinical variability and characterized by the presence of specific although heterogeneous muscle histological features: the cores. Clinical boundaries between the two diseases may overlap and the specific diagnosis is often based on the nature of the cores. These diseases show genetic heterogeneity with both autosomic dominant and recessive mode of inheritance and mutations in the SEPN1, RYR1, ACTA1, TPM3 genes have been reported. Mutations associated with MHS were mainly identified into 2 regions of the N-terminal part of RYR1. Functional role of these two domains is still unclear. Mutations responsible for congenital myopathies mainly mapped to the C terminal region of RYR1 that form the transmembrane calcium channel. Functional studies of the RYR1 mutations have shown that MHS mutations were mainly associated with an alteration of the calcium fluxes in response to caffeine or halothane while CCD mutations would result in a leaky RYR1 channel or would alter the Excitation-Contraction coupling at the level of the CMC.

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