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Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 4—Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Management

International Journal of Nephrology
Publication Date
  • Biology
  • Medicine


The term cardiorenal syndrome refers to the interaction between the heart and the kidney in disease and encompasses five distinct types according to the initial site affected and the acute or chronic nature of the injury. Type 4, or chronic renocardiac syndrome, involves the features of chronic renal disease (CKD) leading to cardiovascular injury. There is sufficient epidemiologic evidence linking CKD with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology goes beyond the highly prevalent traditional cardiovascular risk burden affecting renal patients. It involves CKD-related factors, which lead to cardiac and vascular pathology, mainly left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and vascular calcification. Risk management should consider both traditional and CKD-related factors, while therapeutic interventions, apart from appearing underutilized, still await further confirmation from large trials.

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