Polyphasic taxonomic methods were employed to characterize a new species of slowly growing, nonpigmented mycobacteria. We propose the name Mycobacterium triplex sp. nov. for this new taxon. Conventional identification testing demonstrated a group of similar organisms that were geographically widespread in the United States. Commercially available nucleic-acid probes specific for the Mycobacterium avium complex were unreactive for these strains. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the mycolic acids revealed mycolate profiles that closely resembled Mycobacterium simiae. Comparative 16S rRNA sequence data confirmed the phylogenetic relationship of the strains with the slowly growing mycobacteria. Representative-type strains have been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection as strain ATCC 700071 [corrected].