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Dexamethasone: Insights into Pharmacological Aspects, Therapeutic Mechanisms, and Delivery Systems.

  • Madamsetty, Vijay Sagar1
  • Mohammadinejad, Reza2
  • Uzieliene, Ilona3
  • Nabavi, Noushin4
  • Dehshahri, Ali5
  • García-Couce, Jomarien6, 7
  • Tavakol, Shima8
  • Moghassemi, Saeid9
  • Dadashzadeh, Arezoo9
  • Makvandi, Pooyan10, 11
  • Pardakhty, Abbas12
  • Aghaei Afshar, Abbas2
  • Seyfoddin, Ali13
  • 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, United States. , (United States)
  • 2 Research Center of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 7618866749, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 3 Department of Regenerative Medicine, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, Santariskiu 5, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania. , (Lithuania)
  • 4 Department of Urologic Sciences, Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6H 3Z6. , (Canada)
  • 5 Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 7146864685, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 6 Department of Radiology, Division of Translational Nanobiomaterials and Imaging, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 7 Department of Polymeric Biomaterials, Biomaterials Center (BIOMAT), University of Havana, Havana 10600, Cuba. , (Cuba)
  • 8 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417755469, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 9 Pôle de Recherche en Gynécologie, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels 1200, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 10 Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Centre for Micro-BioRobotics, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 11 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14496-14535, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 12 Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 7618866748, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 13 Drug Delivery Research Group, Auckland University of Technology (AUT), School of Science, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. , (New Zealand)
Published Article
ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Publication Date
Apr 19, 2022
DOI: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.2c00026
PMID: 35439408


Dexamethasone (DEX) has been widely used to treat a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, allergies, ocular disorders, cancer, and, more recently, COVID-19. However, DEX usage is often restricted in the clinic due to its poor water solubility. When administered through a systemic route, it can elicit severe side effects, such as hypertension, peptic ulcers, hyperglycemia, and hydro-electrolytic disorders. There is currently much interest in developing efficient DEX-loaded nanoformulations that ameliorate adverse disease effects inhibiting advancements in scientific research. Various nanoparticles have been developed to selectively deliver drugs without destroying healthy cells or organs in recent years. In the present review, we have summarized some of the most attractive applications of DEX-loaded delivery systems, including liposomes, polymers, hydrogels, nanofibers, silica, calcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. This review provides our readers with a broad spectrum of nanomedicine approaches to deliver DEX safely.

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