Glucagon-like peptide-(17-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) are both products of the enteroglucagon cell. To examine the changes occurring during development, we analyzed by RIA the pancreatic concentrations of these two peptides in fetal and neonatal rats. The levels obtained were compared with those of the classical islet hormones, insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon. The total hormone content of the pancreas increased with age for insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. The amounts of GLP-1-(7-36) amide immunoreactivity (IR) and PYY, however, remained approximately constant in the 3-, 8-, and 30-day-old and adult pancreas. GLP-1-(7-36) amide IR showed only a single peak by gel chromatography, but further analysis by anion exchange chromatography showed that during the fetal period (-18 days) and 3 days postpartum GLP-1-(7-36) amide was the main product, whereas 30 days postpartum and in adult pancreas mainly GLP-1 and an intermediate form were found. Similar analyses of gut extracts revealed that only GLP-1-(7-36) amide is produced during intestinal development. The gut content of GLP-1-(7-36) amide IR and PYY IR increased approximately 100 times between the fetus and the 30-day-old rat. This study reveals a complex and specific regulation of posttranslational processing during maturation for these two peptides.