A controversy whether developmental dyslexia is qualitatively different from other forms of reading disability has existed among reading specialists for many years. In the present study, the hypothesis that the etiology of dyslexia is different from that of other forms of reading disability because of differences in the components that malfunction was tested. A number of studies have shown that the two components that contribute to a large proportion of variance in reading are decoding and comprehension. It is, therefore, possible that a breakdown of different components could lead to different forms of disabilities. College students who were poor readers were assigned to two groups on the basis of their IQ. Conforming to the traditional criterion of dyslexia, those who had an IQ of 95 and above were considered as dyslexic. Those who had an IQ of 85 or below were placed in the Nonspecific Reading-Disabled group. These two groups of poor readers and a group of normal readers were administered a large number of reading-related tests. It was found that the two reading-disabled groups differed from each other in six of the seven areas assessed. There was very little overlap of scores between the two groups in these areas. The results were interpreted to suggest that poor decoding skill is the etiology of developmental dyslexia and that it differs from other forms of reading disability which are caused by generalized cognitive deficits.