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Development and validation of a novel screening instrument to prioritize the orthodontic referral of developing malocclusion in children: The index for interceptive orthodontics referral.

Authors
  • Sinniah, Saraswathy Devi1
  • Venkiteswaran, Annapurny1
  • Zakaria, Najiyatu Nazihah2
  • 1 Centre of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontic Studies, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Selangor, Malaysia. , (Malaysia)
  • 2 Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Selangor, Malaysia. , (Malaysia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Korean journal of orthodontics
Publication Date
Mar 25, 2023
Volume
53
Issue
2
Pages
116–124
Identifiers
DOI: 10.4041/kjod22.229
PMID: 36960722
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The absence of a guideline to refer to developing malocclusions appropriately, may be a contributing factor to the inadequacy of timely interceptive orthodontics provision. This study aimed to develop and validate a new orthodontic grading and referral index to be used by dental frontliners to prioritize the orthodontic referral of developing malocclusion in children based on its severity. A cross-sectional study involving clinical assessment with 413 schoolchildren aged between 8.1 and 11.9 years was conducted in 2018. All the presenting malocclusion was listed and graded based on a few dental guidelines to produce the draft index. The validity and reliability of the draft index were tested using twenty study models. Face and content validation was carried out using the content validation index and Modified Kappa Statistics. Fourteen dental and occlusal anomalies were identified as components of malocclusion and three grades of referral (monitor, standard, urgent) were included in the final index. The scale-level content validity index average value of 0.86 and 0.87 was obtained for content and face validation, respectively. There was moderate to excellent agreement in the Modified Kappa Statistics for both validations. Excellent inter- and intra-assessor agreement was obtained. The new index displayed valid and reliable scores. The Index for Interceptive Orthodontics Referral was developed and validated for the dental frontliners to identify and prioritize the developing malocclusion in children based on its severity and refer for orthodontic consultation to increase the possibility for interceptive orthodontics.

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