Gnathostome teeth are one of the most promising models for developmental evolutionary studies, they are the most abundant organ in the fossil record and an excellent example of organogenesis. Teeth have a complex morphology and are restricted to the mouth in mammals, whereas actinopterygian teeth have a simple morphology and are found in several locations, notably on pharyngeal bones. Morphological and developmental similarities support the hypothesis that oral and pharyngeal teeth are serially homologous. Gene expression data from the mouse and some teleosts have shown that the gene families involved in pharyngeal odontogenesis are also involved in oral tooth formation, with the notable exception of the evx gene family. Here, we present a complete description of early odontogenesis in the medaka (Oryzias latipes), which has both oral and pharyngeal dentition. We show that oral and pharyngeal teeth share deep developmental similarities. In the medaka, like in the zebrafish, eve1 is the only evx gene expressed during odontogenesis. In each forming tooth, regardless of its location, eve1 transcription is activated in the placode, then becomes restricted to the inner dental epithelium and is activated in the dental mesenchyme during early differentiation, and finally ceases at late differentiation. Thus eve1 expression is not specific to pharyngeal teeth development as was previously suggested. Because it permits direct comparisons between oral and pharyngeal teeth by molecular, development and functional studies, the medaka is an excellent model to develop further insights into the evolution of odontogenesis in gnathostomes.