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Development of a multi-scale monitoring programme: approaches for the Arctic and lessons learned from the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme 2002-2022

  • Barry, Tom1, 2
  • Christensen, Tom3
  • Behe, Carolina4
  • Coon, Catherine5
  • Culp, Joseph M.6
  • Fletcher, Sierra7
  • Gill, Micheal8
  • Goedkoop, Willem9
  • Hindrum, Reidar10
  • Jacobson, Cynthia11
  • Jones, Tahzay12
  • Lárusson, Kári Fannar13
  • Lento, Jennifer14
  • Marissink, Mark15
  • McLennan, Donald16
  • Price, Courtney13
  • Rönkä, Mia17
  • Svoboda, Michael18
  • Thaulow, Inge19
  • Taylor, Jason20
  • And 3 more
  • 1 Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Akureyri, Akureyri , (Iceland)
  • 2 Stefansson Arctic Institute, Akureyri , (Iceland)
  • 3 Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Roskilde , (Denmark)
  • 4 Independent researcher, Seattle, Washington, DC , (United States)
  • 5 Bureau of Ocean Energy Management - Alaska Regional Office, Department of the Interior Region, Anchorage, AK , (United States)
  • 6 Department of Biology, and Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON , (Canada)
  • 7 Nuka Research and Planning Group, Seldovia, AK , (United States)
  • 8 Biodiversity Indicators Program, NatureServe, Arlington, VA , (United States)
  • 9 Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala , (Sweden)
  • 10 Independent researcher, Trondheim , (Norway)
  • 11 Innovative Outcomes, Carbondale, CO , (United States)
  • 12 National Park Service, Anchorage, AK , (United States)
  • 13 Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Akureyri , (Iceland)
  • 14 Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB , (Canada)
  • 15 Swedish Species Information Centre, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) Artdatabanken, Uppsala , (Sweden)
  • 16 COENOSIS, Martins Brook, NS , (Canada)
  • 17 Biodiversity Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Turku, Turku , (Finland)
  • 18 Environment and Climate Change, Whitehorse, YT , (Canada)
  • 19 Enviromental Affairs, Government of Greenland, Greenland Representation, Copenhagen , (Denmark)
  • 20 Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, University of Montana, Missoula, MT , (United States)
  • 21 The International Union for Nature Conservation (IUCN), World Commission on Protected Areas, Gland , (Switzerland)
Published Article
Frontiers in Conservation Science
Frontiers Media S.A.
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2023
DOI: 10.3389/fcosc.2023.1220521
  • Conservation Science
  • Review


The Arctic Council working group, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP), an international network of scientists, governments, Indigenous organizations, and conservation groups working to harmonize and integrate efforts to extend and develop monitoring and assessment of the Arctic’s biodiversity. Its relevance stretches beyond the Arctic to a broad range of regional and global initiatives and agreements. This paper describes the process and approach taken in the last two decades to develop and implement the CBMP. It documents challenges encountered, lessons learnt, and solutions, and considers how it has been a model for national, regional, and global monitoring programmes; explores how it has impacted Arctic biodiversity monitoring, assessment, and policy and concludes with observations on key issues and next steps. The following are overarching prerequisites identified in the implementation of the CBMP: effective coordination, sufficient and sustained funding, improved standards and protocols, co-production of knowledge and equitable involvement of IK approaches, data management to facilitating regional analysis and comparisons, communication and outreach to raising awareness and engagement in the programme, ensuring resources to engage in international fora to ensuring programme implementation.

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