Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) causes losses in melon marketable yield. However, until now, there has been no information about the genetic loci responsible for resistance to the disease or their pattern of inheritance. We determined the inheritance pattern of BFB resistance from a segregating population of 491 F2 individuals raised by crossing BFB-resistant (PI 353814) and susceptible (PI 614596) parental accessions. All F1 plants were resistant to Acidovorax citrulli strain KACC18782, and F2 plants segregated with a 3:1 ratio for resistant and susceptible phenotypes, respectively, in a seedling bioassay experiment, indicating that BFB resistance is controlled by a monogenic dominant gene. In an investigation of 57 putative disease-resistance related genes across the melon genome, only the MELO3C022157 gene (encoding TIR-NBS-LRR domain), showing polymorphism between resistant and susceptible parents, revealed as a good candidate for further investigation. Cloning, sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR expression of the polymorphic gene MELO3C022157 located on chromosome 9 revealed multiple insertion/deletions (InDels) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which the SNP A2035T in the second exon of the gene caused loss of the LRR domain and truncated protein in the susceptible accession. The InDel marker MB157-2, based on the large (504 bp) insertion in the first intron of the susceptible accession, was able to distinguish resistant and susceptible accessions among 491 F2 and 22 landraces/inbred accessions with 98.17% and 100% detection accuracy, respectively. This novel PCR-based, co-dominant InDel marker represents a practical tool for marker-assisted breeding aimed at developing BFB-resistant melon accessions.