A rapid lateral flow assay for detection of bovine antibody to Anaplasma marginale was developed. The assay used a recombinant peptide of major surface protein 5 as the antigen and a monoclonal antibody specific for bovine IgG(1) conjugated with colloidal gold beads for detection. Serum and anticoagulated blood samples were obtained from cattle in an area where anaplasmosis was endemic. The samples were selected based on positive identification of the organism in blood smears. The unclotted blood samples were used for PCR determination of the presence of A. marginale while the sera were tested by a commercial competitive enzyme immunoassay (CELISA) and by the lateral flow assay (LFA). Similar samples, collected at a Canadian sales barn, were tested by the CELISA and LFA and 10% were tested by PCR for the presence of A. marginale nucleic acid. In addition, stored serum samples from a second endemic area were tested by CELISA and LFA. Of the 114 smear positive samples, all were positive by CELISA and LFA. All samples were also positive by PCR. Samples from Canadian sources (n=524) were negative in the CELISA but 11 sera gave false positive reactions in the LFA. All samples tested were PCR negative. Of 113 samples from herds with anaplasmosis, 53 were positive in the CELISA and 50 were LFA positive.