Genitourinary tract infections developing in wives during marital life in 1,350 infertile couples were examined. Women married to men with a history of genital tract infection had a significantly higher incidence of vaginitis, urinary tract infection, salpingitis and genital herpes when compared with women whose husbands did not have genital tract infections before the marriage. Of the variables examined, the two factors that showed the most significant association with the tendency to develop salpingitis were the sperm count and the length of time the couple had been trying to achieve a pregnancy. The wives of azoospermic males did not have pelvic inflammatory disease develop but had the same incidence of infection of the lower part of the genital tract as the other studied groups. It is suggested that the bacterial flora of the seminal fluid can play a role in developing salpingitis in the female and that spermatozoa may be involved in delivering bacteria to the higher genital tract structures.