This study aimed to present a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic diarrhea under a sub-barrier system and investigate the development of gut microbiota in this model. Male BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized with OVA or sham-sensitized with saline, and followed by oral OVA intubation, leading to OVA-specific acute diarrhea. Compared with sham-sensitized mice, sera OVA-specific IgG1 and total IgE in OVA-sensitized mice were dramatically elevated, and the number of mast cells was greatly increased in the jejunum of the OVA-sensitized mice. Principle component analysis of the DGGE profile showed that samples from group of OVA-sensitized mice and group of sham-sensitized mice were scattered into two different regions. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the number of 16S rRNA gene copies of Lactobacillus in the colon of OVA-sensitized mice decreased significantly, while there was no significant difference in the number of Bifidobacterium and total bacteria. In conclusion, OVA-specific allergic diarrhea was successfully induced under a sub-barrier system, and changes of allergic reactions during induction was coupled with changes in gut microbiota, especially the number of colonic Lactobacillus, but the role of gut microbiota in the development of food allergic reactions needs to be further evaluated.