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Development of Flat Silicon-Based Mesh Lens Arrays for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Wave Astronomy

Authors
  • Pisano, Giampaolo1
  • Austermann, Jason2
  • Beall, James2
  • Halverson, Nils3
  • Hubmayr, Johannes2
  • Jaehnig, Gregory3
  • McKenney, Christopher M.3
  • Raymond, Benjamin3
  • Suzuki, Aritoki4
  • 1 Cardiff University,
  • 2 National Institute of Standards and Technology,
  • 3 University of Colorado,
  • 4 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Low Temperature Physics
Publisher
Springer US
Publication Date
Jan 24, 2020
Volume
199
Issue
3
Pages
923–934
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10909-019-02327-y
PMID: 32624619
PMCID: PMC7319422
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

The high sensitivity requirements set by future cosmic microwave background instruments are pushing the current technologies to produce highly performant focal plane arrays with thousands of detectors. The coupling of the detectors to the telescope optics is a challenging task. Current implemented solutions include phased-array antenna-coupled detectors, platelet horn arrays, and lenslet-coupled planar antennas. There are also recent developments of flat graded-index lenses based on etched silicon. However, there are strong requirements in terms of electromagnetic performance, such as coupling efficiency and bandwidth, as well as requirements in terms of easy manufacturing and scalability, and it is very challenging to meet all these requirements with one of the above solutions. Here, we present a novel approach for producing flat metal-mesh lenslet arrays based on devices previously realized using the mesh-filter technology. We have now adapted the polypropylene-based mesh lens design to silicon substrates, thus providing a good mechanical match to the silicon-based detector arrays. The measured performance of prototype pixels operating at millimeter wavelengths is presented.

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