The aim of this study was to determine the conversion factors for the effective dose (ED) per dose length product (DLP) for various computed tomography (CT) protocols based on the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). CT dose data from 369 CT scanners and 13,625 patients were collected through a nationwide survey. Data from 3793 patients with a difference in height within 5% of computational human phantoms were selected to calculate ED and DLP. The anatomical CT scan ranges for 11 scan protocols (adult-10, pediatric-1) were determined by experts, and scan lengths were obtained by matching scan ranges to computational phantoms. ED and DLP were calculated using the NCICT program. For each CT protocol, ED/DLP conversion factors were calculated from ED and DLP. Estimated ED conversion factors were 0.00172, 0.00751, 0.00858, 0.01843, 0.01103, 0.02532, 0.01794, 0.02811, 0.02815, 0.02175, 0.00626, 0.00458, 0.00308, and 0.00233 mSv∙mGy−1∙cm−1 for the adult brain, intra-cranial angiography, C-spine, L-spine, neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis, coronary angiography, calcium scoring, aortography, and CT examinations of pediatric brain of <2 years, 4–6 years, 9–11 years, and 13–15 years, respectively. We determined ED conversion factors for 11 CT protocols using CT data obtained from a nationwide survey in Korea and Monte Carlo-based dose calculations.