This article deals with official development assistance (ODA) in Central Asia and with relation of the ODA to the Millennium Development Goals. We look at present development in the sphere of poverty reduction and also at dependence between ODA and GDP growth in a selected country - Kyrgyzstan. ODA per capita and several other indicators are highest in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The time series using poverty ratio indicators for Kyrgyzstan shows that between 2004 and 2011 there was a decline in the percentage of population under the poverty line. The trend generated using analogous time series for Kazakhstan and Tajikistan is similar. However, the internal situation in the region of interest is unstable. The dependence between ODA and GDP growth apparently does not exist in the region of interest. Further aid would be appropriate to focus on development projects’ themes already successfully conducted in selected areas and selected social groups.