Rapid and accurate diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) infection is important for an understanding epidemiology. In order to develop rapid tests for AI antigen and antibody detection, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against influenza nucleoprotein (NP) were produced. These mAbs are designated as F26-9 and F28-73 and able to recognize whole AI virus particles as well as the recombinant NP. Both of the mAbs were tested in a slot blot for their reactivity against 15 subtypes of influenza virus; F28-73 reacted with all tested 15 subtypes, while F26-9 failed to react with H13N6 and H15N8. The mAb binding epitopes were identified using truncated NP recombinant proteins and peptide array techniques. The mAb F26-9 reacted with NP-full, NP-1 (638bp), NP-2 (315bp), NP-4 (488bp), and NP-5 (400bp) in the Western blot. The peptide array results demonstrated that the mAb F26-9 reacted with NP peptides 15-17 corresponding to amino acids 71-96. The mAb F28-73 recognized the NP-full, -1 and -4 fragments, but failed bind to NP-2, -3, -5, and any peptides. This antibody-binding site is expected to be contained within 1-162 amino acids of AI NP, although the exact binding epitope could not be determined. The two mAbs showed reactivity with AI antigen in immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and immune plaque assays. Immune response of AI infected animals was determined using the mAb F28-73 in a cELISA. All tested chickens were positive at 11 days post-infection and remained positive until the end of the experiment on day 28 (>50% inhibition). The two mAbs with different specificities are appropriate for developing various tests for diagnosis of AI infection.