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Developing a model to explain users' ethical perceptions regarding the use of care robots in home care: A cross-sectional study in Ireland, Finland, and Japan.

  • Ide, Hiroo1
  • Suwa, Sayuri2
  • Akuta, Yumi3
  • Kodate, Naonori4
  • Tsujimura, Mayuko5
  • Ishimaru, Mina6
  • Shimamura, Atsuko7
  • Kitinoja, Helli8
  • Donnelly, Sarah4
  • Hallila, Jaakko8
  • Toivonen, Marika8
  • Bergman-Kärpijoki, Camilla9
  • Takahashi, Erika10
  • Yu, Wenwei11
  • 1 Institute for Future Initiatives, The University of Tokyo.
  • 2 Department of Community Health Nursing, Division of Innovative Nursing for Life Course, Graduate School of Nursing, Chiba University. Electronic address: [email protected].
  • 3 Division of Nursing, Faculty of Healthcare, Tokyo Healthcare University.
  • 4 UCD School of Social Policy, Social Work and Social Justice, University College Dublin.
  • 5 Division of Visiting Nursing, School of Nursing, Shiga University of Medical Science.
  • 6 Department of Community Health Nursing, Division of Innovative Nursing for Life Course, Graduate School of Nursing, Chiba University.
  • 7 Division of Community Health Nursing, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, Toho University.
  • 8 Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences.
  • 9 Humana, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 10 Graduate School of Humanities, Chiba University.
  • 11 Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, Chiba University.
Published Article
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2024
DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2023.105137
PMID: 37541051


To date, research on ethical issues regarding care robots for older adults, family caregivers, and care workers has not progressed sufficiently. This study aimed to build a model that universally explains the relationship between the use of care robots and ethical awareness, such as regarding personal information and privacy protection in home care. We examined data obtained from cross-sectional surveys conducted in Japan (n=528), Ireland (n=296), and Finland (n=180). We performed a confirmatory factor analysis by using responses to 11 items related to the ethical use of care robots. We evaluated the model based on the chi-square to degrees of freedom ratio, the comparative fit index, and the root mean square error of approximation. Subsequently, we compared the model with the Akaike's information criterion. Ten items were adopted in the final model. There were 4 factors in the model: 'acquisition of personal information', 'use of personal information for medical and long-term care', 'secondary use of personal information', and 'participation in research and development'. All factor loadings of the final model ranged between 0.63 and 0.92, which were greater than 0.6, showing that the factors had a high influence on the model. The final model was applied to each country; the fit was relatively good in Finland and poor in Ireland. Although the three countries have different geographies, cultures, demographics, and systems, this study showed that the impact of ethical issues regarding the use of care robots in home care can be universally explained by the same model. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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