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Developing FRET Networks for Sensing

Authors
  • Algar, W. Russ
  • Krause, Katherine D.
Type
Published Article
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Jun 13, 2022
Volume
15
Pages
17–36
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-anchem-061020-014925
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a widely used fluorescence-based sensing mechanism. To date, most implementations of FRET sensors have relied on a discrete donor-acceptor pair for detection of each analytical target. FRET networks are an emerging concept in which target recognition perturbs a set of interconnected FRET pathways between multiple emitters. Here, we review the energy transfer topologies and scaffold materials for FRET networks, propose a general nomenclature, and qualitatively summarize the dynamics of the competitive, sequential, homoFRET, and heteroFRET pathways that constitute FRET networks. Implementations of FRET networks for sensing are also described, including concentric FRET probes, other single-vector multiplexing, and logic gates and switches. Unresolved questions and future research directions for current systems are discussed, as are potential but currently unexplored applications of FRET networks in sensing.

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