Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a crucial diagnostic technique used to assess thyroid nodules. In the past, ultrasound-guided FNA was performed mainly by radiologists. However, many surgeons are increasingly being trained for this procedure now. In this study, we aimed to compare the adequacy and efficiency of ultrasound-guided FNA performed by newly trained head and neck surgeons with experienced radiologists in a single institution. We also assessed the malignancy rates in nondiagnostic nodules and the differences between benign and malignant nodules. This is a retrospective study. The data from patients who underwent ultrasound-guided FNA performed by surgeons or radiologists in two consecutive years were collected. Medical records, cytology results, and surgical pathology results were analyzed. During the study period, a total of 2,405 ultrasound-guided FNAs were performed on 2,163 patients. The head and neck surgeons and radiologists performed 1,132 and 1,273 ultrasound-guided FNA procedures, respectively. The nondiagnostic rate was 14.49% for surgeons and 15.40% for radiologists (P=0.533). There were no differences in patient age, gender, nodule size, and other sonographic characteristics between the groups of patients who were treated by radiologists versus surgeons. The median waiting time from biopsy appointment to performing ultrasound-guided FNA was 0 days for head and neck surgeons, and 6 days for radiologists (P<0.001). Of the 40 patients who had a repeat FNA or surgery, 19 (47.50%) had a malignancy. Preoperative information about age, gender, operator, and characteristics of nodules did not predict the outcome of nodules with Bethesda category I. The adequacy of ultrasound-guided FNAs performed by head and neck surgeons is similar to that of skilled radiologists, while surgeons are more efficient than radiologists. Nondiagnostic FNA reports should not be considered benign, and repeat FNA or selective surgical treatment is recommended. 2020 Gland Surgery. All rights reserved.