A method is proposed for the sample preparation of heavy oil residues characterized by viscosity of more than 700 mm2/sec at 100°C to study their elemental composition. It is shown that a wide range of elements can be determined in heavy oil residues by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (IC-AES) when the sample dissolved in an organic solvent is injected into the instrument. The optimal parameters for the determination of metals in heavy oil residues by ICP-AES are selected, including an organic solvent and the method of sample dilution. The results of elemental analysis of heavy residues of oils from Chernigovskoe, Shpakovskoe, and Samarskoe deposits are compared. The developed method for determining metals in heavy oil residues significantly reduces the analysis time and does not require complex sample preparation.