Background: Investigating malaria transmission dynamics is essential to inform policy decision making. Whether multiplicity of infection (MOI) dynamic from individual infections could be a reliable malaria metric in high transmission settings with marked variation in seasons of malaria transmission has been poorly assessed. This study aimed at investigating factors driving Plasmodium falciparum MOI and genetic diversity in a hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso. Methods: Blood samples collected from a pharmacovigilance trial were used for polymerase chain reaction genotyping of the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2. MOI was defined as the number of distinct parasite genotypes co-existing within a particular infection. Monthly rainfall data were obtained from satellite data of the Global Precipitation Measurement Database while monthly malaria incidence aggregated data were extracted from District Health Information Software 2 medical data of the Center-West health regional direction. Results: In the study area, infected people harboured an average of 2.732 (+/- 0.056) different parasite genotypes. A significant correlation between the monthly MOI and the monthly malaria incidence was observed, suggesting that MOI could be a good predictor of transmission intensity. A strong effect of season on MOI was observed, with infected patients harbouring higher number of parasite genotypes during the rainy season as compared to the dry season. There was a negative relationship between MOI and host age. In addition, MOI decreased with increasing parasite densities, suggesting that there was a within-host competition among co-infecting genetically distinctP. falciparumvariants. Each allelic family of themsp1andmsp2genes was present all year round with no significant monthly fluctuation. Conclusions: In high malaria endemic settings with marked variation in seasons of malaria transmission, MOI represents an appropriate malaria metric which provides useful information about the longitudinal changes in malaria transmission in a given area. Besides transmission season, patient age and parasite density are important factors to consider for better understanding of variations in MOI. All allelic families ofmsp1andmsp2genes were found in both dry and rainy season. The approach offers the opportunity of translating genotyping data into relevant epidemiological information for malaria control.