Here, we report the findings of a 25-year cytogenetic follow-up study on a male patient who received 2 rounds of radioiodine treatment within a span of 26 months (1.78 GBq in 1992 and 14.5 GBq in 1994). The patient was 34 years old with a body mass index of 25 at the time of the first radioiodine treatment. Multicolor FISH and multicolor banding (mBAND) techniques performed on the patient detected inter- and intrachromosomal exchanges. Although the frequency of chromosome translocations remained essentially the same as reported in our earlier study (0.09/cell), the percentage of reciprocal (balanced) translocations increased from 54.38 to 80.30% in the current study. In addition to simple chromosome translocations, complex exchanges (0.29%) involving more than 2 chromosomes were detected for the first time in this patient. Strikingly, a clonal translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15, t(14p;15q), was found in 7 of the 677 cells examined (1.03%). The presence of complex and clonal translocations indicates the onset of chromosomal instability induced by internal radioiodine exposure. mBAND analysis using probes specific for chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, and 10 revealed 5 inversions in a total of 717 cells (0.69%), and this inversion frequency is several-fold higher than the baseline frequency reported in healthy individuals using the classical G-banding technique. Collectively, our study suggests that stable chromosome aberrations such as translocations and inversions can be useful not only for retrospective biodosimetry but also for long-term monitoring of chromosomal instability caused by past radioiodine exposure.