Method of Pneumocystis carinii DNA detection in clinical samples (sputum) is presented. Primers to one fragment of 16S rRNA gene were used for detection of DNA. Isolation and amplification of DNA were performed in presence of internal DNA control. Analytical sensitivity of method was 200 copies of DNA per 1 ml. Analytical and diagnostic specificities were 100% and 95% accordingly. Sputum from 176 children with frequent respiratory infections were sampled before start of antibacterial therapy and studied simultaneously by the polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Results of PCR and IFA coincided in 167 (94.89%) children. From them, P.carinii was detected in sputum in 5 (2.85%) children. All children with positive results were treated with antibiotics. Repeated tests of sputum 8 days after start of treatment were all negative. PCR could be recommended as part of complex of clinical diagnostics and control of treatment.