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Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia assemblages in two watersheds in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

  • de Araújo, Ronalda Silva1
  • Aguiar, Bruna1
  • Dropa, Milena1
  • Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe1
  • Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli2
  • de Souza Lauretto, Marcelo3
  • Galvani, Ana Tereza2
  • Padula, José Antônio2
  • Matté, Glavur Rogério1
  • Matté, Maria Helena1
  • 1 Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Av. Doutor Arnaldo 715, São Paulo, SP, 01246-904, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 2 Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo – CETESB, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 3 Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades – EACH, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
Published Article
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Publication Date
Mar 20, 2018
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-1620-3
Springer Nature


Cryptosporidium and Giardia are associated with cases of water and foodborne outbreaks in the world. This study included 50 samples of surface raw water collected from two watersheds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolation of (oo)cysts was performed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s methods 1623 and genotypic characterization and quantification were carried out by Nested PCR and qPCR assays based on 18S rRNA and gdh genes, respectively. U.S. EPA 1623 method showed the presence of (oo)cysts in 40% (x¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$\end{document} = 0.10 oocysts/L) and 100% (x¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$\end{document} = 7.6 cysts/L) of samples from São Lourenço River, respectively, and 24% (x¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$\end{document} = 0.8 oocysts/L) and 60% (x¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$\end{document} = 1.64 cysts/L) of Guarapiranga Reservoir, respectively. The qPCR assay detected C. hominis/parvum in 52% (0.06 to 1.85 oocysts/L) of São Lourenço River and 64% (0.09 to 1.4 oocysts/L) of Guarapiranga Reservoir samples. Presence/absence test for Giardia intestinalis was positive in 92% of São Lourenço River and 8% of Guarapiranga Reservoir samples. The assemblage A was detected in 16% (0.58 to 2.67 cysts/L) in São Lourenço River and no positive samples were obtained for assemblage B in both water bodies. The characterization of anthroponotic species C. parvum/hominis, G. intestinalis, and assemblage A was valuable in the investigation of possible sources of contamination in the watersheds studied confirming the need of expanding environmental monitoring measures for protection of these water sources in our country.

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