Antibodies directed against liver cytosol protein, called anti-liver cytosol type 1 (LC1 Ab), have been described by both immunofluorescence (IF) and immunodiffusion techniques in sera from patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). They have never been found in association with antibodies directed against the hepatitis C virus (HCV), unlike the anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies type 1 (LKM1 Ab), the serological marker of AIH type 2. This suggests that there are two subgroups of AIH type 2, i.e., HCV-related and non-HCV-related. In this study, immunoblotting experiments were performed using proteins from the soluble phase of the rat liver cell; 141 sera which tested positive for LKM1 Ab by IF, 24 identified as having LC1 Ab by IF, and 50 from blood donors as controls were analyzed. Three bands were stained by LC1 Ab sera more often than by the control sera, and with a statistically significant frequency. These 3 proteins were located at apparent Mr 50,000, 55,000, and 60,000. The LKM1 Ab-positive sera as defined by IF stained six bands with a statistically significant frequency compared to the controls. Their apparent Mr were 35,000, 39,000, 47,000, 50,000, 55,000, and 60,000. LKM1 Ab-positive sera which were anti-HCV negative recognized a 60,000 protein belonging to the soluble phase of the cell, with a statistically significant frequency compared to LKM1 Ab-positive sera which were anti-HCV positive. This 60,000 protein was also recognized by LC1 Ab-positive sera, which were almost always anti-HCV negative. The presence of antibodies against a 60,000 protein from the soluble phase of the cell is discussed in terms of the anti-HCV serological markers found in the sera from patients with AIH.