The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter (H.) spp. in swine affected by gastric ulceration. Stomachs from 400 regularly slaughtered swine were subjected to gross pathological examination to evaluate the presence of gastric ulcers. Sixty-five samples collected from ulcerated pars esophagea and 15 samples from non-ulcerated pyloric portions were submitted to histopathological and molecular analyses, to detect Helicobacter spp., H. suis and H. pylori by PCR. Feces and saliva swabs were also collected from 25 animals in order to detect in vivo the presence of Helicobacter spp.. Gastric ulcers were detected in 373 cases (93%). The presence of ulcers in association with inflammatory processes was further confirmed by histological examination. Forty-nine percent (32/65) of the ulcerated esophageal portions as well as 53% (8/15) of the non-ulcerated pyloric portions were positive for Helicobacter spp. by PCR. The Helicobacter spp. positive samples were also positive for H. suis, while H. pylori was not detected. These results were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. With regard to feces and saliva samples, 15/25 (60%) and 16/25 (64%) were positive for Helicobacter spp. PCR, respectively but all were negative in H. suis and H. pylori specific PCR.