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Detection of disease-associated microRNAs — application for autism spectrum disorders

Authors
  • Konečná, Barbora1
  • Radošinská, Jana1, 2
  • Keményová, Petra1
  • Repiská, Gabriela1
  • 1 Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia , (Slovakia)
  • 2 Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia , (Slovakia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Reviews in the Neurosciences
Publisher
De Gruyter
Publication Date
Aug 19, 2020
Volume
31
Issue
7
Pages
757–769
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1515/revneuro-2020-0015
Source
De Gruyter
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnostic procedure still lacks a uniform biological marker. This review gathers the information on microRNAs (miRNAs) specifically as a possible source of biomarkers of ASD. Extracellular vesicles, and their subset of exosomes, are believed to be a tool of cell-to-cell communication, and they are increasingly considered to be carriers of such a marker. The interest in studying miRNAs in extracellular vesicles grows in all fields of study and therefore should not be omitted in the field of neurodevelopmental disorders. The summary of miRNAs associated with brain cells and ASD either studied directly in the tissue or biofluids are gathered in this review. The heterogeneity in findings from different studies points out the fact that unified methods should be established, beginning with the determination of the accurate patient and control groups, through to sample collection, processing, and storage conditions. This review, based on the available literature, proposes the standardized approach to obtain the results that would not be affected by technical factors. Nowadays, the method of high-throughput sequencing seems to be the most optimal to analyze miRNAs. This should be followed by the uniformed bioinformatics procedure to avoid misvalidation. At the end, the proper validation of the obtained results is needed. With such an approach as is described in this review, it would be possible to obtain a reliable biomarker that would characterize the presence of ASD.

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