The savanna cashew (Anacardium humile A. St. Hil.) nut is a native shrub species distributed in the savanna biome of Central Western Brazil. This species is similar to the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut, and its edible pseudo-fruits have been used for various purposes. However, A. humile is at risk of extinction. One reason for this is the phytosanitary issues. Therefore, phytosanitary studies of the serious plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens are necessary. The aim of this study was to survey the savanna cashew nut (Anacardium humile) in Central Western Brazil from August 2013 to October 2014. Serious damage caused by anthracnose to the plant's leaves and fruits was consistently detected. The pathogen fungal species was Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. It was identified by morphological characteristics and molecular analyses. Additional experiments showed evidence that C. gloeosporioides can be transmitted by cashew seeds. We observed anthracnose symptoms on the surfaces of the floral peduncle, leaves, and peduncle of the A. humile cashew nuts. The genomic DNA sequences of the selected strains for molecular characterization have had 99% identity with the analogous sequences of C. gloeosporioides. Naturally occurring C. gloeosporioides infection of the leaves of A. humile was low (20.3%) compared with that of the nuts (79.7%). Our results can be used to design strategies to prevent the introduction and establishment of C. gloeosporioides in new areas. They can also be helpful in monitoring programs in areas with a current occurrence of C. gloeosporioides. Finally, these results can be used in future research plans of C. gloeosporioides infection management.