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Detecting noncredible performance with the neuropsychological assessment battery, screening module: A simulation study.

Authors
  • Lace, John W1
  • Grant, Alex F1
  • Ruppert, Phillip2
  • Kaufman, David A S1
  • Teague, Carson L1
  • Lowell, Kimberly1
  • Gfeller, Jeffrey D1
  • 1 Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA.
  • 2 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Clinical neuropsychologist
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2021
Volume
35
Issue
3
Pages
572–596
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/13854046.2019.1694703
PMID: 31790343
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

While the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery, Screening Module (S-NAB) is a commonly used cognitive screening measure, no composite embedded performance validity test (PVT) formula has yet been described within it. This study sought to empirically derive PVT formulas within the S-NAB using an analog simulation paradigm. Seventy-two university students (M age = 18.92) were randomly assigned to either an Asymptomatic (AS) or simulated mild traumatic brain injury (S-mTBI) group and were administered a neuropsychological test battery that included the S-NAB and standalone and embedded PVTs. The AS group was instructed to perform optimally, and the S-mTBI group received symptom and test coaching to help simulate mTBI-related impairment. Both groups received warnings regarding the presence of PVTs throughout the test battery. Groups showed significant differences (all ps < .001) on all S-NAB domain scores and PVTs. In the S-NAB, the Attention (S-ATT) and Executive Function (S-EXE) domains showed the largest effect sizes (Cohen's ds = 2.02 and 1.79, respectively). Seven raw scores from S-ATT and S-EXE subtests were entered as predictor variables in a direct logistic regression (LR). The model accurately classified 90.3% of cases. Two PVT formulas were described: (1) an exponentiated equation from LR results and (2) an arithmetic formula using four individually meaningful variables. Both formulas demonstrated outstanding discriminability between groups (AUCs = .96-.97) and yielded good classification statistics compared to other PVTs. This study is the first to describe composite, embedded PVT formulas within the S-NAB. Implications, limitations, and appropriate future directions of inquiry are discussed.

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