This qualitative study examines how eight preschool teachers at four schools in four different municipalities relate to and make use of the concept of teaching in the course of their work. In recent years there have been major changes in the Swedish preschool system. From being an operation that focused on care it is now the first stage of a child’s regular education and life-long learning. The preschool curriculum was revised in 2010, which meant that the preschool teacher’s responsibility for teaching was described in greater detail. The goals to strive for regarding mathematics, science and technology as well as language and communication are now clearly specified. At the same time, the Educare model, i.e. the reciprocity between care and pedagogy as the Swedish preschool system is known for, shall be retained. This study is therefore trying to find out how preschool teachers relate to care, upbringing and learning in relation to the concept of teaching. The work carried out in Swedish preschools has long been organised in work teams. The preschool teacher and the child carer have divided their work assignments among themselves on the basis of a fairness perspective rather than on the basis of competence. Whether the organisational changes have also brought about changes in work assignments in relation to the various occupational categories is also being examined. The results showed that opposition to the concept of teaching as well as the difference in the traditions established in schools and preschools remain. Preschool teachers do not associate the word teaching, which in current legislation describes their work, as their work with a child’s learning. This means that they do not regard the curriculum and the Education Act as a whole in preschool practice even though they use the curriculum in their daily work. Nor do they speak of the preschool as a type of school, which means that the perception of the preschool as part of the school system is lost. The study also points out that the old work structures still exist. At the same time as preschool teachers are aware of the increased responsibility which the revised curriculum has brought about and that their workload has substantially increased, the traditional division of labour between the child carer and the preschool teacher remains. The results also showed that preschool teachers’ knowledge and skills therefore are at risk being eroded away, which can have negative consequences on quality.