A series of novel disulfides containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety were designed, synthesized, and the structures of all products were identified by spectral data (IR, NMR, and high resolution (HR)-MS). Their in vitro antiproliferative activities were evaluated using 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-phenyl)-3-(4-nitro-phenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfopheyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (CCK-8) assay against human cancer cell lines, A549 (human lung cancer cell), HeLa (human cervical cancer cell), SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell) and normal cell lines L929. The bioassay results indicated that most of the tested compounds 6a-k, 7a-k and 8a-k exhibited antiproliferation with different degrees, and some compounds showed better effects than positive control 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) against various cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, compound 6e exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against A549 cells with IC50 value of 3.62 µM. Compounds 6i, 7a, 7g, 8a and 8b showed significantly antiproliferative activities against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 3.88, 3.76, 3.59, 3.38 and 3.12 µM, respectively. Compounds 6a, 7a and 8a owned high antiproliferative activities against SMMC-7721 cells with IC50 values of 2.54, 2.69 and 2.31 µM, respectively. Furthermore, all of the tested compounds showed weak cytotoxic effect against the normal cell lines L929. Based on the preliminary results, the substituent groups are vital for improving the potency and selectivity of this class of compounds.