The goal of this work was to study the effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) modified with ionic liquid (IL) on properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites. GnPs were decorated with IL or were modified in bulk directly during rubber mix preparation. The ionic liquid used was 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (BMPFB). The textural properties were studied to confirm surface modification of GnPs with BMPFB. In these investigations, the impact of the concentration of GnPs and the effect of the method of GnPs' modification with IL on elastomers properties are described. Some thermal measurements (e.g., differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry) were conducted to characterize the thermal stability or the vulcanization process of the investigated samples. Complementary experimental techniques were used to investigate the properties of the obtained elastomers, specifically tensile testing, and electrical and barrier property measurements. The deposition of IL on the GnPs' surface positively influenced the mechanical and barrier properties of elastomers. However, samples containing graphene nanoplatelets modified from solution were characterized by less electrical conductivity. SEM analysis was additionally performed to investigate GnPs' dispersion within SBR composites.