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Does Ammonia Released from Protein-Based Attractants Modulate the Capture of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

Authors
  • Lasa, Rodrigo1
  • Williams, Trevor1
  • 1 Red de Manejo Biorracional de Plagas y Vectores, Instituto de Ecología AC (INECOL), Xalapa, Veracruz 91073, Mexico. , (Mexico)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Insects
Publication Date
Feb 12, 2021
Volume
12
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/insects12020156
PMID: 33673059
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Tephritid fly responses to food-based attractants involve a complex range of food-derived semiochemicals, including ammonia. We performed laboratory and field experiments to compare the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) to ammonia with the attraction to commercial food attractants and torula yeast at a range of pHs. A positive correlation was established between the concentration of ammonia in solution (1.5-150 mM ammonium solution) and gaseous ammonia released by bottle-type traps. This resulted in an asymptotic response in captures of A. obliqua flies in traps that released 99-295 µg ammonia/h. Pairwise comparisons in laboratory cages revealed that traps baited with 150 mM ammonia solution captured similar numbers of A. obliqua as traps baited with Biolure 2C, CeraTrap, and hydrolyzed protein products (Captor, Winner, and Flyral) plus borax, despite the low quantities of ammonia (11-56 µg/h) released from these attractants. Subsequent choice experiment captures in traps containing ammonia solution were similar or higher than those of commercial attractants, with the exception of Winner + borax, but were not correlated with the ammonia released from attractants. Captures of flies in traps containing ammonia solution were increased by the addition of 1% torula yeast or torula yeast alkalized with sodium hydroxide or borax despite differences in the quantities of ammonia released. Fly captures generally increased with increasing alkalization of torula yeast (pH 7.5-9.5). In the field, torula yeast in ammonia solution captured similar numbers of A. obliqua flies as Captor + borax when traps were evaluated after 24 h but not after a 7-day trapping period. Traps baited with ammonia solution or Winner + borax were significantly less attractive than Captor + borax in both field experiments. We conclude that A. obliqua flies are attracted to ammonia solutions of increasing concentration, up to 150 mM, in the absence of other stimuli, whereas attraction to commercial attractants or alkalized torula yeast is not correlated with the release of ammonia.

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