A complete, unselected series of 68 patients who were seen during their first episode of an undoubtedly schizophrenic illness, and followed up one year later (for 56 patients) is described clinically. Depressive symptoms were common at onset, and 22% of patients could have been considered cases of depression from these symptoms alone. At follow-up, depressive symptoms had reduced in prevalence and only 7% of subjects were depressed cases. Only two cases of depression at follow-up had not been cases at onset. These changes could not be attributed to the use of antidepressants or ECT. Depressive syndromes could be distinguished from akinesia and the negative syndromes. The findings indicate that depression cannot be attributed solely to the administration of neuroleptics.