Batrachotoxin (BTX) in the low concentration range of 19-190 nM blocks axoplasmic transport in the desheathed cat peroneal nerve in vitro. When the level of Na+ in the incubation medium was reduced to 10 mM, the blocking effect of BTX was much diminished, and in an Na+-free medium BTX had no effect on transport at all. The blocking action of BTX with Na+ present was inhibited by increasing the concentration of Ca2+ in the experimental medium. Relatively small increases were effective with a maximum protection seen when the Ca2+ concentrations were 7-10 mM. The results support the view that an increase in axonal Na+ is inhibitory to the transport mechanism. The results are discussed on the basis of the recently developed transport filament model of axoplasmic transport which takes into account an obligatory role for Ca2+ in transport and its axonal regulation. The possible relation of intraaxonal Na+ concentration to the Ca2+ level is also discussed.