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Density functional theory investigation of the reactions of isodihalomethanes (CH(2)X-X where X = Cl, Br, or I) with ethylene: substituent effects on the carbenoid behavior of the CH(2)X-X species.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of organic chemistry
Publication Date
Volume
66
Issue
17
Pages
5890–5896
Identifiers
PMID: 11511267
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

We investigated the chemical reactions of isodihalomethane (CH(2)X-X) and CH(2)X radical species (where X = Cl, Br, or I) with ethylene and the isomerization reactions of CH(2)X-X using density functional theory calculations. The CH(2)X-X species readily reacts with ethylene to give the cyclopropane product and an X(2) product via a one-step reaction with barrier heights of approximately 2.9 kcal/mol for CH(2)I-I, 6.8 kcal/mol for CH(2)Br-Br, and 8.9 kcal/mol for CH(2)Cl-Cl. The CH(2)X reactions with ethylene proceed via a two-step reaction mechanism to give a cyclopropane product and X atom product with much larger barriers to reaction. This suggests that photocyclopropanation reactions using ultraviolet excitation of dihalomethanes most likely occurs via the isodihalomethane species and not the CH(2)X species. The isomerization reactions of CH(2)X-X had barrier heights of approximately 14.4 kcal/mol for CH(2)I-I, 11.8 kcal/mol for CH(2)Br-Br, and 9.1 kcal/mol for CH(2)Cl-Cl. We compare our results for the CH(2)X-X carbenoids to results from previous calculations of the Simmons-Smith-type carbenoids (XCH(2)ZnX) and Li-type carbenoids (LiCH(2)X) and discuss their differences and similarities as methylene transfer agents.

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