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Demographic, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Ghana

Authors
  • Okyere, Perditer1
  • Ephraim, Richard K.D.2, 3
  • Okyere, Isaac1
  • Attakorah, Joseph1
  • Serwaa, Dorcas4
  • Essuman, Grace2, 3
  • Abaka-Yawson, Albert5
  • Adoba, Prince3, 6
  • 1 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana , Kumasi (Ghana)
  • 2 University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana , Cape Coast (Ghana)
  • 3 Renal Research Initiative, Cape Coast, Ghana , Cape Coast (Ghana)
  • 4 Pan African University, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria , Ibadan (Nigeria)
  • 5 University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana , Ho (Ghana)
  • 6 Ghana Health Service, Winneba, Ghana , Winneba (Ghana)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Nephrology
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Apr 28, 2021
Volume
22
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12882-021-02336-8
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the commonest of the hereditary kidney diseases and mostly ensues in utero with signs delayed until after several decades. This study assessed the demographic, diagnostic (clinical and biochemical features) and therapeutic patterns among ADPKD patients who attended the nephrology unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) from 2007 to 2018.MethodsThis cross-sectional retrospective analysis of ADPKD patient records was conducted at the nephrology unit of KATH in October 2020. The records of 82 ADPKD was used for this study. Demographic, clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and therapeutic data was obtained, organized and analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).ResultsADPKD was most prevalent in people within the ages of 31–40 years (25.6 %), with a male (52.4 %) preponderance. The most common clinical features presented were flank pain (30.5 %) and bipedal swelling (18.3 %). Hypertension (42.7 %), urinary tract infections (UTIs) (19.5 %), and anemia (13.4 %) were the most common complications reported. Average level of HDL-c was higher in females (1.7) than in males (1.2) (p = 0.001). Hematuria (34 %) and proteinuria (66 %) were among the biochemical derangements presented. About 81.7 % had CKD at diagnosis with the majority in stages 1 (27.0 %), 3(23.2 %) and 5 (20.3 %). Poor corticomedullary differentiation was observed in 90.2 % of participants and increased echogenicity was observed in 89.0 % of the participants. Estimated GFR (eGFR) correlated positively with echotexture (r = 0.320, p = 0.005) and negatively with CMD (r= -0.303, p = 0.008). About 95.1 % of patients were on conservative therapy including: 73.2 %, 52.4 %, 22.0 %, 13.4 %, 8.5 % on Irebesartan/Lisinopril, Nifecard XL, Hydralazine, Methyldopa and Bisoprolol respectively for hypertension; 26.8 and 3.7 % on Gliclazide and Metformin respectively for Type 2 diabetes mellitus; 25.6 %, 24.4 and 18.3 % on CaCO3, fersolate and folic acid respectively as nutrient supplements with 4.9 % of participants on renal replacement therapy (RRT).ConclusionsADPKD occurs in people aged ≥ 31 years with a higher male preponderance. Clinical features include flank and abdominal pain, bipedal swelling, headache, amongst others. Uremia, hematuria, proteinuria, decreased eGFR, were the common biochemical derangements reported with higher severity detected in men. The therapeutic interventions mostly involved conservative therapy to manage symptoms and other comorbid conditions and rarely renal replacement therapy (RRT).

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