Taxa of the Talaromyces purpurogenus complex were studied using a polyphasic approach. ITS barcodes were used to show relationships between species of the T. purpurogenus complex and other Talaromyces species. RPB1, RPB2, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences were used to delimit phylogenetic species in the complex. These data, combined with phenotypic characters, showed that the complex contains four species: T. purpurogenus, T. ruber comb. nov. and two new species T. amestolkiae sp. nov. and T. stollii sp. nov. The latter three species belong to the same clade and T. purpurogenus is located in a phylogenetic distant clade. The four species all share similar conidiophore morphologies, but can be distinguished by macromorphological characters. Talaromyces ruber has a very distinct colony texture on malt extract agar (MEA), produces bright yellow and red mycelium on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES) and does not produce acid on creatine sucrose agar (CREA). In contrast, T. amestolkiae and T. stollii produce acid on CREA. These two species can be differentiated by the slower growth rate of T. amestolkiae on CYA incubated at 36 °C. Furthermore, T. stollii produces soft synnemata-like structures in the centre of colonies on most media. Extrolite analysis confirms the distinction of four species in the T. purpurogenus complex. The red diffusing pigment in T. purpurogenus is a mixture of the azaphilone extrolites also found in Monascus species, including N-glutarylrubropunctamine and rubropunctatin. Talaromyces purpurogenus produced four different kinds of mycotoxins: rubratoxins, luteoskyrin, spiculisporic acid and rugulovasins and these mycotoxins were not detected in the other three species.