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Degradation and bound-residue formation of nonylphenol in red soil and the effects of ammonium.

Authors
  • Liu, Jie1
  • Shan, Jun1
  • Jiang, Bingqi1
  • Wang, Lianhong1
  • Yu, Bin1
  • Chen, Jianqiu2
  • Guo, Hongyan3
  • Ji, Rong4
  • 1 State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Avenue 163, 210023 Nanjing, China. , (China)
  • 2 Department of Environmental Science, China Pharmaceutical University, Tongjia Alley 24, 210009 Nanjing, China. , (China)
  • 3 State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Avenue 163, 210023 Nanjing, China; Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, Nanjing University, Hankou Road 22, 210093 Nanjing, China. , (China)
  • 4 State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Avenue 163, 210023 Nanjing, China; Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, Nanjing University, Hankou Road 22, 210093 Nanjing, China. Electronic address: [email protected] , (China)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2014
Volume
186
Pages
83–89
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.11.017
PMID: 24368312
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Fate of nonylphenol (NP) in soils and the effects of nitrogen fertilizers are unclear. Using (14)C-tracer, we studied the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of 4-NP111 in a paddy red soil amended without and with ammonium chloride. Under oxic conditions, 4-NP111 had a half-life of 16.1 ± 1.6 days and minor mineralization (3.84 ± 0.02%), forming no extractable metabolite but abundant bound residues (60.9 ± 1.7%, mostly bound to humin) after 49 days of incubation. The ammonium amendment (8 mmol/kg soil) significantly inhibited the degradation (half-life of 68.0 ± 7.7 days), mineralization (2.0 ± 1.1%), and bound-residue formation (23.7 ± 0.2%). Under anoxic conditions, 4-NP111 did not degrade during 49 days of incubation and the ammonium amendment (40 mmol/kg soil) did not affect its persistence. Our results demonstrate that bound-residue formation was a major mechanism for NP dissipation in the red soil under oxic conditions and that chemical nitrogen fertilizer at average field application rate may already considerably increase NP recalcitrance in agricultural soils.

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