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Degradation of 3D-printed magnesium phosphate ceramics in vitro and a prognosis on their bone regeneration potential.

Authors
  • Eugen, Gefel1
  • Claus, Moseke2
  • Anna-Maria, Schmitt1
  • Niklas, Dümmler1
  • Philipp, Stahlhut1
  • Andrea, Ewald1
  • Andrea, Meyer-Lindenberg3
  • Elke, Vorndran1
  • 1 Institute and Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University Clinic Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 2 Institute for Biomedical Engineering (IBMT), University of Applied Sciences Mittelhessen (THM), Wiesenstraße 14, Gießen, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 3 Clinic for Small Animal Surgery and Reproduction, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany. , (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Bioactive Materials
Publisher
KeAi Publishing
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2023
Volume
19
Pages
376–391
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.04.015
PMID: 35574054
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Regenerative bone implants promote new bone formation and ideally degrade simultaneously to osteogenesis. Although clinically established calcium phosphate bone grafts provide excellent osseointegration and osteoconductive efficacy, they are limited in terms of bioresorption. Magnesium phosphate (MP) based ceramics are a promising alternative, because they are biocompatible, mechanically extremely stable, and degrade much faster than calcium phosphates under physiological conditions. Bioresorption of an implant material can include both chemical dissolution as well as cellular resorption. We investigated the bioresorption of 3D powder printed struvite and newberyite based MP ceramics in vitro by a direct human osteoclast culture approach. The osteoclast response and cellular resorption was evaluated by means of fluorescence and TRAP staining, determination of osteoclast activities (CA II and TRAP), SEM imaging as well as by quantification of the ion release during cell culture. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the materials was investigated via SBF immersion, whereas hydroxyapatite precipitates were analyzed by SEM and EDX measurements. This bioactive coating was resorbed by osteoclasts. In contrast, only chemical dissolution contributed to bioresorption of MP, while no cellular resorption of the materials was observed. Based on our results, we expect an increased bone regeneration effect of MP compared to calcium phosphate based bone grafts and complete chemical degradation within a maximum of 1.5-3.1 years. © 2022 The Authors.

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