Structures of $p$- and $sd$-shell nuclei are studied with the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics method using the Gogny D1S and Skyrme SLy7 forces as effective interactions. By the energy variation with a constraint, energy curves as functions of quadrupole deformation parameter $\beta$ are obtained. The energy curves for $sd$-shell nuclei show structure change as a function of $\beta$, and suggest shape coexistence. Nuclear structures in the deformed region are discussed focusing on deformations and clustering. It is found that the deformations often involve cluster structures. Effective-interaction dependence is also discussed comparing the results obtained with the two effective interactions. Although the two forces give similar results when cluster structures do not develop clearly, they give different energies in the largely deformed region when an $\alpha$ cluster develops.